When do I use the gerundive vs. participle forms of a verb in Latin?
1A typical Latin verb has one gerundive and several participles. Do you only want to compare amandus and amans, or should amatus and amaturus be included, too?– Joonas Ilmavirta ♦Aug 25, 2016 at 5:43
I think that your question will become a lot clearer when you realize that the gerundive is a participle: specifically, it is the future passive participle.
This is thus not a question of choosing between a gerundive and a participle, but rather choosing which participle (tense and voice) to use. Here is a brief overview of the kinds of participles of amare (to love):
- Present active: amans, -ntis
- mater amans: "a loving mother" or "a mother who loves"
- Future active: amaturus, -i
- mater amatura: "a mother who is about to love"
- Perfect passive: amatus, -i (N.B. this has an active meaning with deponent verbs)
- mater amata: "a beloved mother" or "a mother who was loved"
- Future passive: amandus, -i
- mater amanda: "a mother who shall be loved"
Note that this future passive meaning most often conveys a sense of obligation, i.e. "a mother to be loved" = "a mother who should be loved."
If you provide further details about your use case, I can specify further, but as you see there is a pretty clear distinction between each participial form.
2As an interesting aside, the absence of a perfect active participle (as there is in Greek) often forces such thoughts to be translated using ablative absolute + perfect passive participle, e.g. "having visited the store" becomes "the store having been visited..."– brianpckAug 25, 2016 at 12:38
I didn't know "the gerundive is a participle: specifically, it is the future passive participle." Thank you. Also, are the 4 tenses/voices you enumerate all there are for Latin participles?– GeremiaJan 7, 2017 at 15:03