I presume that many Latin words made it to the Romance languages, but were never attested in writing, whether because they were limited to Vulgar Latin or just because by chance no writer used them in texts we now have.

We can still reconstruct the original Latin, particularly if the words are known across the Romance language family.

Is there a list of such words or an article about them?

1 Answer 1


Wiktionary has over 350 reconstructed terms for Latin. Each of these have been proposed by linguists based on etymological evidence. Each page for these terms is described as follows:

This Latin entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

I eliminated many of the superfluous forms, especially infinitives and the genitive forms, so there are actually more pages in Wiktionary than what is listed here. In some cases there was no first person singular form (of the present active indicative) for an infinitive, so there are forms in this list for which there is no Wiktionary page. If there isn't a page for a given verb, look for the infinitive form.

Here's the list:

abanteo, abbato, abbatuo, abbibero, absedium, abyssimus, accapo, accaptio, accapto, accatto, accognito, accolligo, accollo, accomplesco, accordo, accum, acquaerio, acrus, acucla, acutio, adbassio, adiuxto, adminacio, admortesco, adnecai, adnecatu, adneco, adoclo, adpaco, adventura, advero, advitio, aetaticum, affronto, affumo, affundo, agesco, aiunus, alemosyna, alicunus, alima, alisna, allacto, allumino, altio, amaricus, ambito, amicitas, ando, anteanus, apicla, appaco, appariculo, appodio, arbalista, arborus, arcio, ardo, arresto, arripo, asciola, ascla, assalto, assecuro, attitio, attrago, auca, auso, avicellus, aviola, aviolus, baba, babbus, baccinum, baiulivus, bannio, barbatorem, barra, barrum, bassio, basto, bataclum, bellitas, bellitia, bisonium, blancus, blastemo, blastimo, blavus, boscaticum, bragio, brandus, brigna, bullico, cadentia, cadeo, calcea, cancriclus, canile, capitina, cappella, cappellus, capum, carnaceus, casco, casico, catunum, caveola, cavula, certanus, chirurgianus, cicala, cinquaginta, cinque, cinusia, clapo, clubium, cnifus, coactico, cocinarius, combatto, cominitio, commando, complesco, confesso, consutura, contingesco, convito, coratio, cordarius, cosio, coso, crebellum, cremo, cuniclus, damnaticum, dancio, decembrius, deexcito, deintus, delicatio, depano, derectio, derectus, deripo, destrugo, dia, discalceus, disculceus, dismerdo, domino, domnicella, drectus, ergo, excadeo, excadesco, excalceus, excambio, excappo, excarmino, exeligo, exfortio, expavento, experlavo, extorco, extuto, exvento, exvolo, fabello, facia, fallesco, Fata, feminus, fetiolus, fibella, ficco, figico, finesco, fio, flasca, florio, flotus, focacia, fortio, frappo, frictura, frocus, genuclum, glacia, grabo, granica, haleno, halsbergus, harpa, haunio, Hispaniolus, ianuella, iecto, illu, imbibito, imbosco, implio, impositum, imprehendo, inaltio, inaltus, incaldesco, inclago, indenso, indulcesco, ingrevico, interro, intorco, inuxoro, invirdesco, invitio, ioco, iugaster, lacartus, laitus, languio, leviarius, linguaticum, longitanus, lucio, machino, mais, malifatius, mana, maneana, mania, manizo, mas, matrastra, matrina, medullum, melus, metio, metipsimus, minacia, minacio, mino, misculo, mollio, montania, monto, mordo, morio, movo, mucco, mulgo, murrum, musclus, muso, ninnus, nivico, nivo, noco, nomine, oblito, odio, offeresco, offerio, ordio, orgollio, orulo, palatare, palatium, paresco, pariclus, passarus, passo, patrinus, patta, pendico, perdono, peresco, petio, picco, piccus, picto, pincio, pisco, pissio, pittus, plattus, ploppus, plovo, podio, posso, postius, preco, presso, primavera, pulica, punctio, puppa, putio, putrio, quaresima, quassico, quomo, rabia, raso, raspo, reexcapto, refuso, rencus, rendo, renio, repoenitio, ridio, rido, rosico, rossa, ruptio, sagia, sambatum, sanitosus, sapeo, sarclo, scermio, scribio, sedento, sementia, semitarius, sennus, septembrius, sequio, sicilo, smeralda, smeraldus, socra, soliclus, sorbio, spio, strinctus, stuno, subrido, sufferio, suggluttio, superanus, surrupo, tardivus, tasto, tempulum, tenio, timo, tiro, tocco, toppus, torco, tractio, tragino, tremo, trifolum, tripalio, tropo, trudico, turbulo, turbulus, tutellus, tuto, undizo, uso, vera, veranum, versura, vestitura, virdia, visaticum, volto, wadanio, wardo, warnio, werra

  • 3
    @vectory I thought that links alone were discouraged because of breakages?
    – Restioson
    May 5, 2020 at 20:18
  • 6
    I myself would actually prefer a link and the full list, as long as it fits into one answer. De gustibus non disputandum?
    – Cerberus
    May 6, 2020 at 0:50
  • 3
    @Cerberus. I agree. It's better that way. May 6, 2020 at 0:55
  • 3
    @ExpeditoBipes: Perfect. And some interesting words, too! I suspect many would have been Vulgar.
    – Cerberus
    May 6, 2020 at 1:55
  • 3
    It looks very much as if the true list is shorter than what we have here: as if, in an ancestor of this list, several words were specified using two forms, e.g. "abanteo, abanteare", "amicitas, amicitatis", and whoever sorted them treated each form as if it were a separate list entry.
    – Rosie F
    May 6, 2020 at 6:06

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