In the following clause the agent is in the accusative, not ablative. Why?

quod Civitas Aquilegensis et oppida Sancti Viti A. et Sancti Danielis in dicta patria consistentia cum omnibus eorum districtibus, pertinentiis (…) habeantur per ipsum Reverendissimum Dominum Cardinalem et Patriarcham

(the full sentence is too long, you can read it here)


1 Answer 1


The agent here is not denoted by the bare accusative, but by per + accusative. This usage is classical. L/S s.v. “per” cites several examples from Cicero, e.g. “quod nefarium stuprum non per illum factum est,” “What nefarious crime has not been commited by him?” It survives with (for example) French “par”.

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