I remember reading long ago a pithy Latin expression for “in war and peace,” or “in war as in peace,” or something to that effect. The idea is that one might say, for example, that a certain truth holds under peaceful and warlike circumstances alike.

Now one could simply say: et in bello et in pace, or (leaning on Cicero, Pro Marcello, VI): ut in pace, sic in bello, or (with apologies to the Lord's Prayer): sicut in pace, et in bello. I suppose countless other variations on this theme would be possible.

But I seem to recall that there was a metaphorical way to express the sentiment; unfortunately I do not remember any details. Maybe it had to do with opposing gods, perhaps Mars and Minerva? (But Minerva is not exactly the goddess of peace.) Or maybe it had to do with the toga—sagum pair? Or with temple doors being open or shut?

Does anybody know, or can think of, such a flowery way of expressing the idiom?

  • 6
    I faintly recall domi militiaeque. Does it ring a bell? I don't have the time to write an answer now, but I don't mind at all if someone elaborates on this.
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Commented Apr 21, 2020 at 21:21

3 Answers 3


You're probably thinking of domi militiaeque / domi bellique (but also militiae et domi etc. and the archaic domi duellique), literally "at home and on military service" / "at home and in war", as Joonas also suggests in the comments.

The Roman army of the Republic was not made of professional troops, it was instead based on the levy. The period of peace is represented by domi because in the homeland, inside the pomerium (the sacred boundary around the city of Rome), no one could carry any weapons. On the contrary, the period of war is illustrated by the call to arms.

  • Thank you, that certainly fits the bill. And it is quite fascinating – did bellum just inherit the locative from domus? Commented Apr 22, 2020 at 21:05
  • 2
    @SebastianKoppehel: Indeed! I think so. Here the author states that "belli and militiae occur without domi only in poetic and artificially archaizing texts", which seems to support this. Commented Apr 22, 2020 at 22:17

Vincenzo Oliva's answer – domi militiaeque and variations thereof – is certainly the most established expression. I found another one that I also liked, it is found in Livy's Ab urbe condita (6.18), citing an argument presumably made by M. Manlius Capitolinus to rouse the Plebeians, talking about the danger that he will be carried off to prison or worse:

Bene facitis quod abominamini. Di prohibebunt haec; sed nunquam propter me de caelo descendent; vobis dent mentem oportet ut prohibeatis, sicut mihi dederunt armato togatoque ut vos a barbaris hostibus, a superbis defenderem civibus.

Great of you that you act all appalled, saying: “The Gods will prevent this!” But the Gods won't descend from heaven for my sake; they can only give you the courage to prevent it, just like they gave me the courage to defend you, wearing my armour and wearing my toga, from foreign enemies and from citizens who deem themselves above others.

Armatus togatusque (as cnread points out in his comment, the form armato togatoque is in the dative case agreeing with mihi) does not exactly mean “in war and peace,” it literally means “armed and wearing a toga” or, more freely: “equipped to go to war / appropriately dressed to engage in business and politics.” The point is that the toga was the Roman men's civilian dress. Georges actually mentions this quote, translating it as „im Kriegs- und Friedensgewande“, that is, in warlike and peaceful garb.

I think it lends itself to metaphorical use, but it is not a prepositional phrase like in bello, so it has to be adapted to the sentence and might quickly look awkward when not talking about people. For example:

  • Caesar armatus togatusque summa aequitate res gerebat. (Looks fine, I think.)
  • Galli Romam armatam togatamque numquam imparatam offenderunt. (Looks a little weird.)
  • Triremes Athenienses armatae togataeque omnibus a Graecis laudabantur. (OK, that is weird.)

Just as the toga signifies peace, so does the sagum (a soldier's cloak) signify war. Sagatus is also an attested word, so one might form sagatus togatusque.

Searching on Google for sagato togatoque (and vice versa, and other forms), I found a few hits; all of them not looking particularly classical though, but I also like that combination.

  • 2
    That's a really terrific discovery. To make the answer more useful, though, you should point out that that exact phrase doesn't mean 'in war and in peace' in such a way that it could be plugged into any context without modification. The two words are dative singular masculine because they modify mihi. In other contexts, different forms would be required.
    – cnread
    Commented Apr 23, 2020 at 20:40
  • @cnread Thank you, I have elaborated a bit. Still a little unsure how to apply this in other contexts. Commented Apr 23, 2020 at 22:19
  • This one's pretty cool! Had a chuckle at that example sentence :D Commented May 3, 2021 at 19:45

The metaphorical way I learned was 'In ense et aratro' which means with sword and plough, to show war and peace.

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.