The two alternative forms Ἀθήνηθεν and ἀπὸ Άθηνῶν have been virtually interchangeable, as you may ascertain from a diachronic text search. St Paul used the latter, of course, but would never use the former -- too archaic. The further back you go, the more the former predominates (down to Ἀθήνῃθεν).
That is to say the primary two meanings of ἀπό:
motion away from
origin of all kinds
after time, since,
seem to be accessed by both words, and appear to not follow the Latin usage split linked in the comment, such as it might well have been...