Exempli gratia, how would one say 'I am perturbed' in Latin opposed to 'I am human'? The state of being perturbed can change, but the state of being a human being cannot change, so how does one write about each. Does Latin even make the distinction betwixt these two states of existence via inflection? I'm quite the novice at Latin, so sorry for the inconvenience.
Exempli gratia, how would one say 'I am perturbed' in Latin opposed to 'I am a human'?
I am perturbed = turbor or perturbor, if I am perturbed by someone or something in this moment (generally accompanied by a complement of agent). Otherwise, in order to express a condition or state, you can use perturbatus sum, where perturbatus is a predicate of the subject (ego), or a participle with the function of an adjective. It is important to remember also that perturbatus sum can be "I was perturbed / I have been perturbed / I had been perturbed" as the perfect tense of the verb perturbo.
I am a human = homo sum, were the present sense indicates an unchanging condition (or at least longlasting, or abitual).
Moreover, perturbatus is a predicate of the noun, while homo is a substantive itself, which is more suitable to express a permanent rather than a transient condition.
Other times, you may use the adjective humanus meaning "regarding the human nature", but usually you don't say 'humanus sum'. Here is a famous example:
Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto. ~ Publius Terentius Afer