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I run into this sentence of the Digest - D.9.2.54

Legis Aquiliae debitori competit actio, cum reus stipulandi ante moram promissum animal vulneraverit.

I understand that the person who has promessed (reus stipulandi) [to deliver] an animal injured it before the moment he was due to deliver it. In that case, the debtor (i.e. the buyer who owes payment of the purchase price) has the action of the lex Aquilia against the sellor.

Not sure my understanding is correct.

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I'm going to rearrange the parts of the sentence just slightly.

…debitori competit…

A debtor is allowed… (lit. "it is allowed to a debtor")

Legis Aquiliae…actio…

…a lawsuit under the Lex Aquilia…

…cum reus stipulandi…

…when the other party to an agreement…

…promissum animal vulneraverit

…injures an animal which was promised [as collateral]…

…ante moram…

…before they default on their debt.

Mora has a specialized meaning in Roman law: willful delay or defaulting on a payment owed. To my understanding, this part of the Lex Aquilia comes up when a debtor offers up (say) a horse as collateral on a loan, then the lessor injures the horse and says "actually this isn't in good enough condition, you'll need to offer something more". It only applies before the debtor goes into default; after they've defaulted, the animal promissum belongs to the lessor, who can do whatever they like with it.

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