To the Romans, if I understand right, the word caelum "sky" incorporated everything above the earth: the atmosphere, the space beyond it, and even the thrones of the gods.
But nowadays we divide things up a bit more precisely. There's a difference between "sky" (what we see looking upward), "space" (the void outside our atmosphere), and "heaven" (the metaphysical home of God or gods). I've seen caelum used for the first and the last, but it feels strange to use it for "outer space" as well.
So: if I want to refer specifically to "space", as opposed to "the sky" or "heaven", how would I do that? Vacuum "void", chaos "void, but in Greek", and spatium "[extent of] space" come to mind, but I'd like to follow precedent if there is one.